XML Character References

XML > Structure > XML Character References

A character reference refers to a specific character in the ISO/IEC 10646 character set (to all intents and purposes ISO/IEC 10646 is Unicode).

The value for the character can either be specified in decimal using the notation R or specified in hex using  notation R In this case they both represent the character 'R'.

Character references are typically used to output extended Unicode character that editors/keyboards/encodings are unable to enter directly, or to escape characters that would be mistaken for control characters.

Character Reference (Decimal) Character Reference (Hex) Character
© © ©
™ ™

Character references are expanded within the data held in elements, attributes, processing instructionscomments . They are not expanded within CDATA blocks.

EBNF Syntax

 The syntax for a character reference is described by the W3C as using EBNF as follows.

[66]      CharRef    ::=          '&#' [0-9]+ ';' | '&#x' [0-9a-fA-F]+ ';'


See Also

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