- Escaping XML Data
- XML Encoding
- XML 1. 0 EBNF
- XML 1.1 EBNF
- Byte Order Marker
- XML Schemas
- XML Mixed Content
- Describing Complex Structures in XML
A character reference refers to a specific character in the ISO/IEC 10646 character set (to all intents and purposes ISO/IEC 10646 is Unicode).
The value for the character can either be specified in decimal using the notation R or specified in hex using notation R In this case they both represent the character 'R'.
Character references are typically used to output extended Unicode character that editors/keyboards/encodings are unable to enter directly, or to escape characters that would be mistaken for control characters.
|Character Reference (Decimal)||Character Reference (Hex)||Character|
The syntax for a character reference is described by the W3C as using EBNF as follows.
 CharRef ::= '&#' [0-9]+ ';' | '&#x' [0-9a-fA-F]+ ';'